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Sources of Citations and Illustrations


____________________

p. 23, drawing by the author

p. 60, Dante, Inferno, Canto XXXI

p. 61, Giovanni Pascoli, "Il bacio del morto" ("The Dead Manís Kiss"), from Myricae, Livorno: Raffaello Giusti, 1891

p. 61, Giovanni Pascoli, "Nebbia" ("Fog"), from Canti di Castelvecchio (Songs of Castelvecchio), Bologna: Zanichelli, 1903

p. 61, Giovanni Pascoli, "Voci misteriose" ("Mysterious Voices"), from Poesie varie (Selected Poems), Bologna: Zanichelli, 1928

p. 62, Vittorio Sereni, "Líalibi e il beneficio" ("The Alibi and the Benefit"), from Gli strumenti umani (The Human Instruments), Turin: Einaudi, 1965. Reproduced by kind permission of the estate of Vittorio Sereni.

p. 67, lyrics by Giancarlo Testoni, "In cerca di te" ("Searching for You"), Metron, 1945. Reproduced by kind permission of IDM Music, Ltd. All rights reserved.

pp. 70-71, cover and two panels from Il tesoro di Clarabella (original title: Race for Riches), Milan: Mondadori, 1936, © Disney Enterprises, Inc.

p. 91, Giovanni Pascoli, "Nella nebbia" ("In the Fog"), Primi Poemetti (Early Poems), Bologna: Zanichelli, 1905

p. 93, La escala de la vida (The Stair of Life), nineteenth-century Catalan print (authorís collection)

p. 95, prints from Zur Geschichte der Kost"ume (The History of Costume), Munich: Braun and Schneider, 1861 (authorís collection)

p. 97, cover of La filotea (The Filotea), by Giuseppe Riva, Bergamo: Istituto Italiano díArti Grafiche, 1886 (authorís collection)

p. 100, Imagerie dí'Epinal, Pellerin (authorís collection)

p. 102, cover of sheet music for "Vorrei volare" (original title: "Itís in the Air"), Milan: Carisch, 1940 (authorís collection). Reproduced by kind permission of IDM Music, Ltd. All rights reserved.

p. 104, Ren'ee Vivien, "`A la femme aim'ee" ("To the Beloved Woman"), from Po`emes I (Po e m s I ), Paris: Lemerre, 1923

p. 105 (clockwise): Alex Pozeruriski, Apr`es la danse (After the Dance), magazine illustration for La gazette du Bon Ton, c. 1915 (in Patricia Frantz Kery, Art Deco Graphics, New York: Abrams, 1986) Janine Aghion, The Essence of the Mode in the Day, book illustration, 1920 (in Patricia Frantz Kery, Art Deco Graphics, New York: Abrams, 1986) Julius Engelhard, Mode Ball, poster, 1928 (in Patricia Frantz Kery, Art Deco Graphics, New York: Abrams, 1986) Anonymous, Candee, advertisement and poster, 1929 (in Patricia Frantz Kery, Art Deco Graphics, New York: Abrams, 1986)

p. 106 (clockwise): George Barbier, Sch'eh'erazade, magazine illustration for Modes et Mani`eres díAujourdíhui, 1914 (in Patricia Frantz Kery, Art Deco Graphics, New York: Abrams, 1986) Charles Martin, De la pomme aux l`evres (From Apple to Lips), magazine illustration for La gazette du Bon Ton, c. 1915 (in Patricia Frantz Kery, Art Deco Graphics , New York: Abrams, 1986) Georges Lepape, Vo g u e magazine cover, Mar. 15, 1927 (in Patricia Frantz Kery, Art Deco Graphics, New York: Abrams, 1986). Reproduced by kind permission of Cond'e Nast Publications Inc. George Barbier, Incantation, book illustration for Falbalas et Fanfreluches, 1923 (in Patricia Frantz Kery, Art Deco Graphics, New York: Abrams, 1986)

p. 109, illustration from Il nuovissimo Melzi, Milan: Vallardi, 1905 (authorís collection)

p. 113, illustration by Alphonse de Neuville for Vingt mille lieues sous les mers (20,000 Leagues under the Sea), by Jules Verne, Paris: Hetzel, 1869

p. 114, cover of Il conte di Monte-Cristo (original title: Le comte de Monte-Cristo; English title: The Count of Monte Cristo), by Alexandre Dumas, Milan: Sonzogno, 1927, © RCS (authorís collection)

p. 115, illustration by Charles Cl'erice for Les ravageurs de la mer (The Ravagers of the Sea), by Louis Jacolliot, Paris: Librairie

Illustr'ee, 1894-95 (authorís collection)

p. 121, tin of Talmone Cocoa

p. 122, tin of Brioschi Effervescent Powders (authorís collection)

p. 124, cigarette packets, from Michael Thibodeau and Jana Martinís Smoke Gets in Your Eyes, New York: Abbeville Press, 2000. Copyright © 2000 by Abbeville Press, Inc. Photography by Elliot Morgan/Blink Studio.

p. 125, barberís calendarette, Sprazzi e bagliori (Flashes and Sparkles), 1929 (authorís collection)

p. 126, barberís calendarettes, from Ermanno Dettiís Le carte povere (Poor Papers), Florence: La Nuova Italia, 1989

p. 130 (left to right, top to bottom): Cover of Nick Carter: Il gran poliziotto Americano (Nick Carter: The Great American Detective), Milan: Casa Editrice Americana, 1908 Cover of Cuore , by Edmondo de Amicis, Milan: Fratelli Treves, 1878 Cover by Domenico Natoli of Curti Bo e la piccola tigre bionda (Curti Bo and the Little Blond Tiger), by Augusto de Angelis, Milan: 1943, © RCS Cover by Trancredi Scarpelli of I promessi sposi (The Betrothed), by Alessandro Manzoni, Florence: Nerbini, no date Cover of New Nick Carter Weekly, Italian edition, Milan: Casa Editrice Americana, no date Cover by Leo Fontan of Líaiguille creuse (The Hollow Needle), Paris: 'Editions Pierre Lafitte, 1909 Cover of Il treno della morte (The Death Train), by Carolina Invernizio, Turin, 1905 (authorís collection) Cover of Il consiglio dei quattro (original title: The Council of Justice), by Edgar Wallace, Milan: Mondadori, 1933 (authorís collection) Cover of Vidocq: Líuomo dalle cento facce (Vidocq: The Man of a Hundred Faces), by Marc Mario and Louis Launay, Milan: La Milano, 1911

p. 131 (left to right, top to bottom): Cover by Filiberto Mateldi of I miserahili (Les Mis'erables), by Victor Hugo, Turin: Unione Tipografico Editrice Torinese, 1945 (authorís collection) Cover by Gennaro Amato of I corsari delle Bermude (The Bermuda Pirates), by Emilio Salgari, Milan: Sonzogno, 1938, © RCS (authorís collection) Cover of Viaggi staordinarissimi di Saturnino Farandola (original title: Voyages tr`es extraordinaires de Saturnin Farandoul; English title: The Very Extraordinary Voyages of Saturnin Farandoul), by Albert Robida, Milan: Sonzogno, no date (authorís collection) Cover by Domenico Natoli of I figli del Capitano Grant (original title: Les enfants du capitaine Grant; English title: The Children of Captain Grant), by Jules Verne, Milan: SACSE, 1936 (authorís collection) Cover by Tancredi Scarpelli of I misteri del popolo (original title: Les myst`eres du peuple; English title: The Mysteries of the People), by Eugene Sue, Florence: Nerbini, 1909 (authorís collection) Cover of La strana morte del signor Benson (original title: The Benson Murder Case), by S. S. Van Dine (pseudonym of Willard Huntington Wright), Milan: Romanzo Mensile, 1938 Cover of Senza famiglia (original title: Sans famille; English title: Nobodyís Boy), by Hector Malot, Milan: Sonzogno, no date, © RCS Cover by Giorgio Tabet of Il barone alle strette (original title: The Baron at Bay; U.S. title: Blue Mask at Bay), by Anthony Morton (pseudonym of John Creasey), Milan: Romanzo Mensile, 1938, © RCS (authorís collection) Cover by Domenico Natoli of Il delitto di Rouletabille (original title: Le crime de Rouletabille [The Crime of Rouletabille]), by Gaston Leroux, Milan: Sonzogno, 1930, © RCS (authorís collection)

p. 132, cover of Fant^omas, by Marcel Allain and Pierre Souvestre, Florence: Salani, 1912 p. 133 (left), cover of Rocambole, by Ponson du Terrail, Paris: Jules Rouff, no date

p. 133 (right), illustration by Giorgio Tabet, from I sosia del barone (original title: Alias the Baron; U.S. title: Alias Blue Mask), by Anthony Morton (pseudonym of John Creasey), Milan: Romanzo Mensile, 1939, © RCS (authorís collection)

p. 135, illustration by Attilio Mussino, from Pinocchio, by Carlo Collodi (pseudonym of Carlo Lorenzini), Florence: Bemporad, 1911

p. 136, cover of Le avventure di Ciuffettino (The Adventures of Ciuffettino), by Yambo (pseudonym of Enrico Novelli), Florence: Vallecchi, 1922 (authorís collection)

p. 138, covers of Giornale Illustrato dei Viaggi e delle Avventure di Terra e di Mare (Illustrated Journal of Voyages and Adventures by Land and Sea), Milan: Sonzogno, 1917-20, © RCS (authorís collection)

p. 140, covers of My Childrenís Library books, Florence: Salani (authorís collection)

p. 143, illustration from Otto giorni in una soffitta (original title: Huit jours dans un grenier [Eight Days in an Attic]), Florence: Salani (authorís collection)

p. 144, cover by Tancredi Scarpelli of Buffalo Bill: Il medaglione di brillanti, Florence: Nerbini, no date (authorís collection) p. 145, cover of Ragazzi díItalia nel mondo (Italyís Boys in the World ), by Pino Ballario, Milan: Prora, 1938 (authorís collection)

p. 146, illustration by Newell Convers Wyeth, from Treasure Island, by Robert Louis Stevenson, New York: Charles Scribnerís Sons, 1911

p. 148 (clockwise): Cover by Gennaro Amato of Sandokan alia riscossa (Sandokan Fights Back), by Emilio Salgari, Florence: Bemporad, 1907 Cover by Alberto Delia Valle of I misteri della jungla nera (The Mysteries of the Black Jungle), by Emilio Salgari, Genoa: Donath, 1903 Cover by Alberto Delia Valle of Il corsaro nero (The Black Corsair), by Emilio Salgari, Genoa: Donath, 1908 Cover by Alberto Delia Valle of Le tigri di Mompracem (The Tigers of Mompracem), by Emilio Salgari, Genoa: Donath, 1906

p. 150, illustration by Frederic Dorr Steele from Collierís, vol. XXXI, no. 26, Sept. 26, 1903

p. 151, illustrations by Sidney Paget from Strand Magazine, 1901-1905

pp. 152-53, Arthur Conan Doyle, "A Study in Scarlet," Beetonís Christmas Annual, 1887

p. 153, Arthur Conan Doyle, "The Sign of Four," Lippincottís Magazine, Feb. 1890 pp. 153-54, Emilio Salgari, Le tigri di Mompracem (The Tigers of Mompracem), Genoa: Donath, 1906

p. 157, panel by Bruno Angoletta from Corriere dei piccoli, Dec. 27, 1936, © RCS (authorís collection)

p. 162 (left), illustration from Il giornalino di Gian Burrasca (The Diary of Hurricane Gian), by Vamba (pseudonym of Luigi Bertelli), Florence: Bemporad-Marzocco, 1920 (authorís collection)

p. 162 (right), cover of Rocambole: La morte del selvaggio (original title: Rocambole: La mort du sauvage [Rocambole: The Savageís Death]), by Ponson du Terrail, Milan: Bietti, no date (authorís collection)

p. 165, lyrics by Carlo Prato and Riccardo Morbelli, "Quando la radio" ("When the Radio"), Nuova Fonit-Cetra. Lyrics reproduced by kind permission of IDM Music, Ltd. All rights reserved.

p. 168, record sleeve of Fiorin Fiorello, Odeon/EMI, 1939 p. 169, lyrics by Carlo Innocenzi and Alessandro Soprani, "Mille lire al mese" ("A Thousand Lire a Month"), Rome: Marietta, 1938. Lyrics reproduced by kind permission of IDM Music, Ltd. All rights reserved.

p. 172 (left column): Poster of the Federazione dei Fasci di Combattimento (Federation of Combat Groups) Lyrics by Salvator Gotta, "Giovinezza" ("Youth")

p. 172 (right column): Cover of sheet music for "Tulipan" ("Tulips") Lyrics by Riccardo Morbelli, "Tulipan" ("Tulips"), free adaptation of the original English lyrics of "Tu-li Tulip Time" by Jack Lawrence and Maria Mendez Grever, Milan: Edizioni Curci, 1940. Cover and lyrics reproduced by kind permission of IDM Music, Ltd. All rights reserved.

p. 173 (left column): Fiat publicity poster from the 1930s Lyrics by Vittorio Emanuele Bravetta, "Fischia il sasso" ("The Stone Whistles"). Lyrics reproduced by kind permission of IDM Music, Ltd. All rights reserved.

p. 173 (right column): Cover of sheet music for "Maramao perch'e sei morto?" ("Maramao, Why Did You Die?") Lyrics by Mario Consiglio, "Maramao perche sei morto?" ("Maramao, Why Did You Die?"), Melodi/Sugar, 1939. Cover and lyrics reproduced by kind permission of IDM Music, Ltd. All rights reserved, p. 176 (clockwise): Cover of sheet music for "Tango del ritorno" ("Tango of Return"), Milan: Edizioni Joly Cover of sheet music for "Finestra chiusa" ("Closed Window"), Milan: Edizioni Curci Cover of sheet music for "Maria la O," Milan: Edizioni Leonardi Cover of sheet music for "La mia canzone al vento" ("My Song to the Wind"), Milan: Edizioni S.A.M. Bixio. Covers reproduced by kind permission of IDM Music, Ltd. All rights reserved,

p. 181, illustrations by Enrico Pinochi from Il libro della prima classe elementare (The First Grade Reader), by Maria Zanetti, Rome: Libreria dello Stato, Anno XVI (authorís collection)

p. 181, lyrics by Luigi Astore and Riccardo Morbelli, "Baciami piccina" ("Kiss Me Baby"), Milan: Fono Enic. Lyrics reproduced by kind permission of IDM Music, Ltd. All rights reserved,

p. 183, illustration by Angelo Della Torre from Il libro della IV classe elementare (The First Grade Reader), Rome: Libreria dello Stato, Anno XVIII (authorís collection)

p. 185 (left column): Illustration from Il libro della prima classe elementare (The First Grade Reader), by Maria Zanetti, Rome: Libreria dello Stato, Anno XVI (authorís collection) Lyrics by Vittorio Emanuele Bravetta, "Inno dei giovani fascisti" ("Young Fascistsí Anthem"). Lyrics reproduced by kind permission of IDM Music, Ltd. All rights reserved.

p. 185 (right column): Cover of sheet music for "Pippo non lo sa" ("Pippo Doesnít Know") Lyrics by Mario Panzeri, Gorni Kramer, and Nino Rastelli, "Pippo non lo sa" ("Pippo Doesnít Know"), Milan: Melodi, 1940. Cover and lyrics reproduced by kind permission of IDM Music, Ltd. All rights reserved.

p. 186, illustration from Il libro della IV classe elementare (The 4th Grade Reader), Rome: Libreria dello Stato, Anno XVIII (authorís collection)

p. 188, two propaganda postcards by Gino Boccasile, c. 1943-44

p. 189, cover of Tem po , June 12, 1950, Milan: Anonima Periodici Italiani

p. 190 (left column): Cover of sheet music for "La piccinina" ("The Millinerís Assistant"), Milan: Edizioni Melodi, 1939 (authorís collection) Lyrics by Eldo di Lazzaro and Mario Panzeri, "La piccinina" ("The Millinerís Assistant"), Milan: Edizioni Melodi, 1939. Cover and lyrics for "La piccinina" reproduced by kind permission of IDM Music, Ltd. All rights reserved. Lyrics by Giovanni DíAnzi and Marcello Marchesi, "Bellezze in bicicletta" ("Beauties on Bikes"). Lyrics reproduced by kind permission of IDM Music, Ltd. All rights reserved.

p. 190 (right column): Fiat poster by Marcello Dudovich, 1934, © 2005 Artists Rights Society (ARS) New York/SIAE, Rome. Lyrics by Giovanni DíAnzi and Alfredo Bracchi, "Ma le gambe" ("But Their Legs"), Milano: Edizioni Curci Lyrics by Carlo Buti, "Reginella campagnola" ("Little Country Queen"). Lyrics for "Ma le gambe" and "Reginella campagnola" reproduced by kind permission of IDM Music, Ltd. All rights reserved.

p. 193, propaganda postcard by Enrico Deseta, Rome: Edizioni díArte Boeri, 1936

pp. 194-95, lyrics by M. Zambrelli, "Vincere" ("Victory"), 1940. Lyrics reproduced by kind permission of IDM Music, Ltd. All rights reserved.

p. 196, propaganda postcard by Gino Boccasile, Due popoli, una vittoria (Two Peoples, One Victory)

pp. 196-97, Italian lyrics by Nino Rastelli (free adaptation of the original German lyrics by Hans Leip, 1915), "Lili Marleen," 1943. Lyrics reproduced by kind permission of IDM Music, Ltd. All rights reserved.

pp. 197-98, lyrics by Tito Manlio, "Caro Pap`a" ("Dear Daddy"), Milan: Accordo, 1941. Lyrics reproduced by kind permission of IDM Music, Ltd. All rights reserved.

p. 199 (left column): Propaganda postcard by Gino Boccasile, Tacete! (Hush!), 1943 Lyrics by Vittorio Emanuele Bravetta, "Adesso viene il bello" ("Blue Skies Are on the Way"), Milan: Carisch. Lyrics reproduced by kind permission of IDM Music, Ltd. All rights reserved.

p. 199 (right column): Propaganda postcard by Gino Boccasile, Ritorneremo (We Will Return), 1943 Lyrics by Alberto Simeoni and Ferrante Alvare De Torres, "La sagra di Giarabub" ("The Feast of Giarabub"). Lyrics reproduced by kind permission of IDM Music, Ltd. All rights reserved.

pp. 200-201, lyrics by Auro DíAlba, "Battaglioni M" ("The M Battalions"). Lyrics reproduced by kind permission of IDM Music, Ltd. All rights reserved.

p. 202 (left column): Cover illustration by Achille Beltrame, La Domenica del Corriere (The Sunday Corriere), 1943, © RCS (authorís collection) Lyrics by Zorro, "La canzone dei sommergibili" ("The Song of the Submarines"), Canzone Marcia, 1941. Lyrics reproduced by kind permission of IDM Music, Ltd. All rights reserved.

p. 202 (right column): Cover of sheet music for "Signorine non guardate i marinai" ("Young Ladies Take Your Eyes Off Sailor Boys"), Milan: Edizioni Musicali Mascheroni Lyrics by Vittorio Mascheroni and Marf, "Signorine non guardate i marinai" ("Young Ladies Take Your Eyes Off Sailor Boys"), Milan: Edizioni Musicali Mascheroni. Cover and lyrics reproduced by kind permission of IDM Music, Ltd. All rights reserved.

p. 204 (left column): Alberto Rabagliati Lyrics by Giovanni DíAnzi and Alfredo Bracchi, "Non dimenticar le mie parole" ("Donít Forget My Words") Lyrics by Giovanni DíAnzi and Michele Galdieri, "Ma líamore no" ("But Love Is Not That Way") Lyrics by Giovanni DíAnzi and Alfredo Bracchi, "Bambina innamorata" ("Darling How I Love You"). All lyrics reproduced by kind permission of IDM Music, Ltd. All rights reserved.

p. 204 (right column): Pippo Barzizza Lyrics by Vittorio Mascheroni and Peppino Mendes, "Fiorin Fiorello" ("Precious Little Flower") Lyrics by "La gelosia non `e pi`u di moda" ("Jealousy Has Gone Out of Fashion"). All lyrics reproduced by kind permission of IDM Music, Ltd. All rights reserved.

pp. 214-15, extract from Il Bertoldo, Aug. 27, 1937

p. 229, cover illustration by Bruno Angoletta, Il Corriere dei Piccoli, Oct. 15, 1939, © RCS (authorís collection)

p. 230, panel by Pat Sullivan from Il Corriere dei Piccoli, Nov. 29, 1936, © RCS (authorís collection)

p. 231 (top), cover illustration by Benito Jacovitti, Alvaro il corsaro (Alvaro the Pirate), Rome: Edizioni AVE, 1942 (authorís collection). Reproduced by kind permission of the Archivio Benito Jacovitti.

p. 231 (bottom), cover illustration by Sebastiano Craveri, Il carro di trespoli (The Trestle Car), Rome: Edizioni AVE, 1938 (authorís collection)

p. 233, panel by Kurt Caesar from "Verso A.O.I." ("Toward I.E.A. [Italian East Africa]"), Il Vittorioso, June 7, 1941 (authorís collection)

p. 235, first page of the first issue of Líavventuroso (The Adventurous), Florence: Nerbini, 1934 (authorís collection). Flash Gordon illustrations by Alex Raymond, © King Features Syndicate, Inc. Reprinted with special permission of King Features Syndicate.

p. 238 (left to right, top to bottom): Panel by Benito Jacovitti from "Pippo e il dittatore" ("Pippo and the Dictator"), in Intervallo, 1945 (authorís collection). Panel reproduced by kind permission of the Archivio Benito Jacovitti. Panel by Lyman Young from "La pattuglia dellíavorio" ("The Ivory Patrol"), Firenze: Nerbini, 1935, © King Features Syndicate, Inc., 1934. Panel reprinted with special permission of King Features Syndicate. Panel from unknown cartoon Panel by Elzie Crisler Segar from Popeye, © King Features Syndicate, Inc. Panel reprinted with special permission of King Features Syndicate. Panel by Lyman Young from "Lo spirito di Tambo" ("The Spirit of Tambo"), in Il giornale di Cino e Franco (original title: Tim Tylerís Luck), Florence: Nerbini, Mar. 22, 1936, © King Features Syndicate, Inc. Panel reprinted with special permission of King Features Syndicate. Panel by Benito Jacovitti from "Pippo e il dittatore" ("Pippo and the Dictator"), in Intervallo, 1945 (authorís collection). Panel reproduced by kind permission of the Archivio Benito Jacovitti. Panel by Lyman Young from "Il coccodrillo sacro" ("The Sacred Crocodile"), in Il giornale di Cino e Franco (original title: Tim Tylerís Luck), Florence: Nerbini, Sept. 19, 1937, © King Features Syndicate, Inc. (authorís collection). Panel reprinted with special permission of King Features Syndicate. Panel by Walt Disney and Floyd Gottfredson from Topolino nel paese dei califfi (English title: Adventure in an Arabian Country), Milan: Mondadori, Dec. 10, 1934, © Disney Enterprises, Inc., 1970 Panel by Walt Disney and Floyd Gottfredson from "Topolino nella valle infernale" ("Mickey Mouse in Death Valley"), Milan: Mondadori, May 31, 1930, © Disney Enterprises, Inc., 1970 Panel by Elzie Crisler Segar from Popeye, © King Features Syndicate, Inc. Panel reprinted with special permission of King Features Syndicate.

p. 239, panel by Lee Falk and Ray Moore featuring LíUomo Mascherato (The Phantom), from Il piccolo Toma (original title: Little Tommy), Florence: Nerbini, July 1, 1938, © King Features Syndicate, Inc. Panel reprinted with special permission of King Features Syndicate.

p. 241 (top): cover by Giove Toppi of Il mago "900" (The Modern Magician), Florence: Nerbini, no date

p. 241 (bottom): cover by Floyd Gottfredson of Topolino giornalista (Mickey Mouse Runs His Own Newspaper), Milan: Mondadori, 1936. © Disney Enterprises, Inc.

p. 242, panel detail by Chester Gould from Dick Tracy (© Chicago Tribune/New York News Syndicate). Reproduced by kind permission of Tribune Media Services. p. 244 (left), cover by Vittorio Cossio of La camera del terrore (The Chamber of Terror), Milan: Albogiornale Juventus, 1939 (authorís collection)

p. 244 (right), cover by Carlo Cossio of Líinfame tranello (The Infamous Snare), Albogiornale, 1939 (authorís collection)

p. 245, illustration by Milton Caniff from Terry and the Pirates (© Chicago Tribune/New York News Syndicate), from the cover of The Golden Age of the Comics No. 4, New York: Nostalgia Press, 1970. Reproduced by kind permission of Tribune Media Services.

p. 247 (left to right, top to bottom): Panel by Pier Lorenzo De Vita, from "Líultimo Ras" ("The Last Ras"), from Corriere dei piccoli, Dec. 20, 1936, © RCS (authorís collection) Panel by Alex Raymond from Flash Gordon, 1938, © King Features Syndicate, Inc. (authorís collection). Panel reprinted with special permission of King Features Syndicate. Panel by Lee Falk and Ray Moore from Nel regno dei Singh (original title: The Singh Brotherhood), Florence: Nerbini, Aug. 1, 1937, © King Features Syndicate, Inc. (authorís collection). Panel reprinted with special permission of King Features Syndicate. Panel by Alex Raymond and Dashiell Hammett from "Agente Segreto X9" ("Secret Agent X9"), in Líavventuroso, Oct. 14, 1934, © King Features Syndicate, Inc. (authorís collection). Panel reprinted with special permission of King Features Syndicate. Panel by Alex Raymond from Flash Gordon, 1938, © King Features Syndicate, Inc. (authorís collection). Panel reprinted with special permission of King Features Syndicate. Panel by Alex Raymond from Flash Gordon, 1938, © King Features Syndicate, Inc. (authorís collection). Panel reprinted with special permission of King Features Syndicate.

p. 249, cover of Novella with photograph by Braschi, Jan. 8, 1939, Milan: Rizzoli, © RCS (authorís collection)

p. 251, Italian cover by Lyman Young of La Misteriosa Fiamma della Regina Loana (The Mysterious Flame of Queen Loana), Florence: Nerbini, 1935, © King Features Syndicate, Inc., 1934. Reprinted with special permission of King Features Syndicate.

p. 255, various stamps (private collection)

p. 263 (left), still of Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers, source unknown

p. 263 (right), still of Elsa Merlini from Ultimo hallo (Last Dance), directed by Camillo Mastrocinque, 1941

p. 268, front page of Corriere della sera, July 26, 1943, © RCS

p. 273, lyrics by Lelio Luttazzi, "Il giovanotto matto" ("The Crazy Young Guy"), Milano: Casiroli: 1945. Lyrics reproduced by kind permission of IDM Music, Ltd. All rights reserved.

p. 273, lyrics by Libera Bovio, "Signorinella" ("Little Maiden"), Santa Lucia. Lyrics reproduced by kind permission of IDM Music, Ltd. All rights reserved.

p. 275, photograph (private collection)

p. 277, illustration by Domenico Pilla from Piccoli martiri (Little Martyrs), no date (authorís collection)

p. 294, Cesare Pavese, "Sono solo" ("I Am Alone"), written in 1927, from Le poesie (Po e ms ), Turin: Einaudi, 1998. Reproduced by kind permission of Einaudi.

p. 296, Augusto De Angelis, Líalbergo delle tre rose, Milan: Mondadori, 1936

p. 297, title page of the first folio edition of Shakespeareís plays, 1623

p. 303, montage by the author of ads for Fernet Branca bitters (1908), Presbitero pencils (1924), and Thermog`ene hot compresses (Leonetto Cappiello, 1909)

p. 304, illustration by Attilio Mussino, from Le orecchie di Meo (Meoís Ears) by Giovanni Bertinetti, Turin: Lattes, 1908 (authorís collection)

p. 305, illustrations by Angelo Bioletti, from I quattro Moschettieri (The Four Musketeers), by Angelo Nizza and Riccardo Morbelli, Perugina/Buitoni, 1935 (authorís collection)

p. 310, illustration from Il conte di Monte-Cristo (original title: Le comte de Monte-Cristo; English title: The Count of Monte Cristo), by Alexandre Dumas, Milan: Sonzogno, 1927, © RCS (authorís collection)

p. 315, ad for Mineraria briquettes, drawing by Dinelli, c. 1934 (Societ`a Mineraria del Valdarno e Carbonital)

p. 324, montage by the author of cover images from Novella, Milan: Rizzoli, 1939, © RCS (authorís collection)

p. 326, ad for Cachet Fiat headache pills, drawing by Mario Cussino, 1926

p. 329 (left), publicity poster for Borsalino hats, by Marcello Dudovich, c. 1930, © 2005 Artists Rights Society (ARS) New York/SIAE, Rome.

p. 329 (right), photographs of German concentration camps, 1945

p. 332, propaganda poster from the Repubblica Sociale Italiana, 1944

p. 334, front pages of Líltalia libera (Oct. 30, 1943) and Avanti! (Apr. 3, 1944) (authorís collection)

p. 337, Fijian stamps (private collection)

p. 340, lyrics by Nino Rastelli, "Tornerai" ("Youíll Come Back"), Leopardi. Lyrics reproduced by kind permission of IDM Music, Ltd. All rights reserved.

p. 347, photomontage for the ten-year anniversary of the Fascist Revolution, Rome: Istituto Luce, 1932. Reproduced by kind permission of the Istituto Luce.

p. 361, SS poster, 1944

p. 366, montage by the author of Repubblica Sociale Italiana propaganda posters, film stills, and advertising images from the 1940s

p. 380, still from Casablanca, directed by Michael Curtiz, Warner Bros., 1942

p. 381 (left), front page of Corriere Lombardo, Aug. 8, 1945 (authorís collection)

p. 381 (right), publicity poster for Road to Zanzibar, directed by Victor Schertzinger, Paramount, 1941

p. 387, Josephine Baker p. 388, Giovanni Bosco, Il giovane provveduto (The Provident Young Man), from Opere edite II (Published Works II), Rome: Libreria Ateneo Salesiano

p. 389, lyrics of "Bella tu sei qual sole" ("Lovely Thou Art as the Sun"), popular hymn

p. 390-91, Giovanni Bosco, Il giovane provveduto (The Provident Young Man), from Opere edite II (Published Works II), Rome: Libreria Ateneo Salesiano

p. 392, lyrics by Lorenzo Perosi, "Dormi non piangere" ("Sleep Do Not Cry"), 1912

p. 394, still from I due orfanelli (English title: The Two Orphans), directed by Mario Mattoli, Excelsa Film, 1947

p. 396, illustration from Líuomo che ride (original title: Líhomme qui rit; English title: The Man Who Laughs or The Laughing Man), by Victor Hugo, Milan: Sonzogno, no date, © RCS (authorís collection)

p. 397, still of Rita Hayworth and Tyrone Power from Blood and Sand, directed by Rouben Mamoulian, 20th Century Fox, 1941

p. 398, still of Bing Crosby and Frank McHugh from Going My Way, directed by Leo McCarey, Paramount, 1944

p. 400, Jules Barbey díAurevilly, L'ea, from uvres romanesques compl`etes (Complete Novels), Paris: Pl'eiade Gallimard, 2002

p. 401, Gustave Moreau, detail of Líapparition (The Apparition), 1876

p. 404, Sergio Corazzini, from "Il mio cuore" ("My Heart"), from Dolcezze (Sweetnesses), 1904

pp. 404-405, Guido Gozzano, from "La pi`u bella" ("The Loveliest"), 1913

p. 413, montage by the author of an illustration by Alex Raymond from Rip Kirby (© King Features Syndicate, Inc.). Reprinted with special permission of King Features Syndicate; an illustration of a 1950s Schubert pattern (Centro Studi e Archivio della Communicazione, Parma), and a Vespa ad (from Il libro della communicazione Piaggio [The Piaggio Communication Book]), by Maurizio Boldrini and Omar Calabrese, Siena: Alsaba, 1995

pp. 422-24, 427-28, 430, 432, montages by the author of illustrations by Alex Raymond from Flash Gordon, © King Features Syndicate, Inc. All images reprinted with special permission of King Features Syndicate.

p. 434, adaptation by the author of an illustration by Lee Falk and Phil Davis from Mandrake, © King Features Syndicate, Inc. Reprinted with special permission of King Features Syndicate.

p. 437, adaptation by the author of an illustration by Milton Caniff from Terry and the Pirates, © Chicago Tribune/New York News Syndicate. Reproduced by kind permission of Tribune Media Services.

p. 438, adaptation by the author of an illustration by Alex Raymond from Flash Gordon, © King Features Syndicate, Inc. Reprinted with special permission of King Features Syndicate.

p. 440, montage by the author of illustrations from various Italian books

p. 442, lyrics by Bixio Cherubini, "La famiglia canterina" ("The Singing Family"), Milan: Edizioni Bixio, 1929. Lyrics reproduced by kind permission of IDM Music, Ltd. All rights reserved.

p. 443, adaptation by the author of an illustration by Lyman Young from La misteriosa fiamma della Regina Loana (The Mysterious Flame of Queen Loana), Florence: Nerbini, 1935, © King Features Syndicate, Inc. Reprinted with special permission of King Features Syndicate.

p. 445, adaptation by the author of an anonymous holy card



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