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FURTHER READING

These suggestions are for readers interested in reading further. In addition to key books and papers, I have also tended to favour recent references that provide comprehensive listings of the earlier literature. Journal titles are followed by the volume number, followed by the first and last page number, and then the year of publication in parentheses.

Chapter 1: A Tale of Three Chimps

The literature on deducing relationships among humans and other primates by means of the DNA clock consists of technical articles in scientific journals. Sibley and Ahlquist present their studies in three papers: C.G. Sibley and J.E. Ahlquist, The phylogeny of the hominoid primates, as indicated by DNA-DNA hybridization', Journal of Molecular Evolution 20, pp. 2-15 (1984); 'DNA hybridization evidence of hominoid phylogeny: results from an expanded data set', Journal of Molecular Evolution 26, pp. 99-121 (1987); and C.G. Sibley, J.A. Comstock, and J.E. Ahlquist, 'DNA hybridization evidence of hominoid phylogeny: a reanalysis of the data', Journal of Molecular Evolution 30, pp. 202-36 (1990). Sibley's and Ahlquist's many studies of bird relationships by means of the same DNA methods are summarized in two articles: C.G. Sibley and J.E. Ahlquist, 'The phylogeny and classification of birds based on the data of DNA-DNA hybridization', in the book Current Ornithology, edited by R.F. Johnston, vol. 1, pp. 245-92 (Plenum, New York, 1983);andC.G. Sibley, J.E. Ahlquist, andB.L. Monroe, 'A classification of the living birds of the world based on DNA-DNA hybridization studies', Auk 105, pp. 409-23 (1988).

Similar conclusions about human and primate relationships were obtained by DNA comparisons using a different method (termed the tetraethylammonium chloride method, rather than the hydroxyapatite method used by Sibley and Ahlquist). The results were described by A. ^accone and J.R. Powell in 'DNA divergence among hominoids', bv0lution 43, pp. 925-42 (1989). A paper by the same authors explains now percentage similarity among DNAs can be calculated from DNA med melting points: A. Caccone, R. DeSalle, and J.R. Powell,

'Calibration of the changing thermal stability of DNA duplexes and degree of base pair mismatch', Journal of Molecular Evolution 27, pp. 212-16 (1988). The above papers compare the entire genetic material (DNA) of two species by means of mixed melting points in order to obtain a single measure of overall similarity. Alternatively, a much more laborious method yielding much more detailed information about a tiny fraction of each species' DNA consists of determining the actual sequence of molecular units comprising that portion of DNA. Four studies stemming from a single laboratory and applying that method to human and primate relationships are M.M. Miyamoto et al, 'Phylogenetic relations of humans and African apes from DNA sequence in the W-globin region', Science 238, pp. 369-73 (1987); M.M. Miyamoto et al, 'Molecular systematics of higher primates: genealogical relations and classification", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 85, pp. 7627-31 (1988); M. Goodman et al, 'Molecular phylogeny of the family of apes and humans', Genome 31, pp. 316-35 (1989); andM. Goodman etal, 'Primate evolution at the DNA level and a classification of hominoids', Journal of Molecular Evolution 30, pp. 260-66 (1990). The same principle is applied to relationships among Lake Victoria's cichlid fishes by A. Meyer et al, 'Monophyletic origin of Lake Victoria cichlid fishes suggested by mitochondrial DNA sequences', Nature 347, pp. 550-53 (1990). Two papers that vigorously criticize the DNA clock in general, and Sibley's and Ahlquist's application of it to human/primate relationships in particular, are J. Marks, C.W. Schmidt, and V.M. Sarich, 'DNA hybridization as a guide to phylogeny: relationships of the Hominoidea', Journal of Human Evolution 17, pp. 769-86 (1988); and V.M. Sarich, C.W. Schmidt, and J. Marks, 'DNA hybridization as a guide to phylogeny: a | critical analysis', Cladistics 5, pp. 3-32 (1989). In my view, the criticisms by Marks, Schmidt, and Sarich have been adequately answered. The i good agreement between conclusions about human/primate relation-] ships based on the DNA clock as measured by Sibley and Ahlquist, the | DNA clock as measured by Caccone and Powell, and DNA sequencing | further supports the correctness of these conclusions.

Other papers on the DNA clock are in two issues of the Journal oft Molecular Evolution, nos. 3 and 5 in vol. 30 (1990), that also include some j of the papers cited above. Chapter 2: The Great Leap Forward

Among the many books providing detailed accounts of humanj evolution, the recent one that I found the most useful is by Richard Klein,

The Human Career (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1989). A beautifully illustrated and less technical account is by Roger Lewin, In the Age of Mankind (Smithsonian Books, Washington DC, 1988).

Two books presenting multi-authored technical accounts of recent human evolution are edited by Fred H. Smith and Frank Spencer, The Origins of Modern Humans (Liss, New York, 1984) and by Paul Mellars and Chris Stringer, The Human Revolution: Behavioural and Biological Perspectives on the Origins of Modern Humans (Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, 1989). Some recent articles on the dating and geography of human evolution are by C.B. Stringer and P. Andrews, 'Genetic and fossil evidence for the origin of modern humans', Science 239, pp. 1263-68 (1988); H. Valladas et al, Thermoluminescence dating of Mousterian proto-Cro-Magnon remains from Israel and the origin of modern man', Nature 331, pp. 614-16 (1988); C.B. Stringer et al, 'ESR dates for the hominid burial site of Es Skhul in Israel', Nature 338, pp. 756-58 (1989); J.L. Bischoff et al, 'Abrupt Mousterian-Aurignacian boundaries at c. 40 ka bp: accelerator 14C dates from 1'Arbreda Cave (Catalunya, Spain) , Journal of Archaeological Science 16, pp. 563-76 (1989); V. Cabrera-Valdes and J. Bischoff, 'Accelerator 14C dates for Early Upper Paleolithic (Basal Aurignacian) at El Castillo Cave (Spain) , Journal of Archaeological Science 16, pp. 577-84 (1989); and E.L. Simons, 'Human origins', Science 245, pp. 1343-50 (1989).

Three books with many beautiful illustrations of Ice Age art are by Randall White, Dark Caves, Bright Visions (American Museum of Natural History, New York, 1986); Mario

Ruspoli, Lascaux: the Final Photographs (Abrams, New York, 1987); and Paul G. Bahn and Jean Vertut, Images of the Ice Age (Facts on File, New York, 1988). Matthew H. Nitecki and Doris V. Nitecki, The Evolution of Human Hunting (Plenum Press, New York, 1986), providea series of chapters by various authors on that subject. The question of whether Neanderthals really did bury their dead is debated in an article by R.H. Gargett, 'Grave shortcomings: the evidence for Neanderthal burial', and in accompanying responses, published in Current Anthropology 30, pp. 157-90 (1989). Three sources that will provide an entrance into the literature on the "nked questions of human vocal tract anatomy and whether Neanderthals could speak are Philip Lieberman's The Biology and Evolution of language (Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1984); E.S. Crelin's The Human Vocal Tract (Vantage Press, New York, 1987); and an article by Arensburg et al, 'A Middle Palaeolithic human hyoid bone', Nature -338, 758-60 (1989).

Chapter 3: The Evolution of Human Sexuality Chapter 4: The Science of Adultery For anyone interested in an evolutionary approach to behaviour in general (including reproductive behaviour), two books are a must: E.O. Wilson, Sociobiology (Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1975), and John Alcock, Animal Behavior, 4th edition (Sinauer, Sunderland, 1989).

Outstanding books that discuss the evolution of sexual behaviour include Donald Symons, The Evolution of Human Sexuality (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1979); R.D. Alexander, Darwinism and Human Affairs (University of Washington Press, Seattle, 1979); Napoleon A. Chagnon and William Irons, Evolutionary Biology and Human Social Behavior (Duxbury Press, North Scituate, Massachusetts, 1979); Tim Halliday, Sexual Strategies (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1980); Glenn Hausfater and Sarah Hrdy, Infanticide (Aldine, Hawthorne, New York, 1980); Sarah Hrdy, The Woman that Never Evolved (Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1981); Nancy Tanner, On Becoming Human (Cambridge University Press, New York, 1981); Frances Dahlberg, Woman the Gatherer (Yale University Press, New Haven, 1981); Martin Daly and Margo Wilson, Sex, Evolution, and Behavior (Willard Grant Press, Boston, 1983); Bettyann Kevles, Females of the Species (Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1986); and Hanny Lightfoot-Klein, Prisoners of Ritual: an Odyssey into Female Genital Circumcision in Africa (Harrington Park Press, Binghamton, 1989).

Books dealing specifically with primate reproductive biology include C.E. Graham, Reproductive Biology of the Great Apes (Academic Press, New York, 1981); B.B. Smuts et al, Primate Societies (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1986); Jane Goodall, The Chimpanzees of Gombe (Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1986); Toshisada Nishida, The Chimpanzees of the Mahale Mountains, Sexual and Life History Strategies (University of Tokyo Press, 1990); and Takayoshi Kano, The Last Ape: Pygmy Chimpanzee Behavior and Ecology (Stanford University Press, Stanford, 1991).

Articles on the evolution of sexual physiology and behaviour include the following: R.V. Short, 'The evolution of human reproduction', Proceedings of the Royal Society (London), series B 195, pp. 3-24 (1976); R.V. Short, 'Sexual selection and its component parts, somatic and genetical selection, as illustrated by man and the great apes', Advances in the Study of Behavior 9, pp. 131-58 (1979); N. Burley, 'The evolution of concealed ovulation', American Naturalist 114, pp. 835-58 (1979); A.H. Harcourt et al, 'Testis weight, body weight, and breeding system in primates', Nature 293, pp. 5557 (1981); R.D. Martin and R.M. May, 'Outward signs of breeding', Nature 293, pp. 79 (1981); M. Daly and M.I. Wilson, 'Whom are newborn babies said to resemble? , Ethology and Sociobiology 3, pp. 6978 (1982); M. Daly, M. Wilson, and SJ. Weghorst, 'Male sexual jealousy', Ethology and Sociobiology 3, 1127 (1982); A.F. Dixson, 'Observations on the evolution and behavioral significance of "sexual skin" in female primates', Advances in the Study of Behavior 13, pp. 63-106 (1983); S.J. Andelman, 'Evolution of concealed ovulation in vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) , American Naturalist 129, pp. 785-99 (1987); and P.H. Harvey and R.M. May, 'Out for the sperm count', Nature 337, pp. 508-9 (1989). Chapter Four discussed several examples illustrating how birds combine extramarital sex with apparent monogamy. Detailed examples of such studies are presented in papers by D.W. Mock, 'Display repertoire shifts and extra-marital courtship in herons', Behaviour 69, pp. 5771 (1979); P. Mineau and F. Cooke, 'Rape in the lesser snow goose', Behaviour 70, pp. 280-91 (1979); D.F. Werschel, 'Nesting ecology of the Little Blue Heron: promiscuous behavior', Condor 84, pp. 381-84 (1982); M.A. Fitch and G.W. Shuart, 'Requirements for a mixed reproductive strategy in avian species', American Naturalist 124, pp. 116-26 (1984); and R. Alatalo et al, 'Extra-pair copulations and mate guarding in the polyterritorial pied flycatcher, Ficedula hypoleuca', Behaviour 101, pp. 139-55 (1987). Chapter 5: How We Pick Our Mates and Sex Partners Not surprisingly, this topic has called forth much scientific study. Some papers exemplifying the literature on mate choice by humans are E. Walster et al, 'Importance of physical attractiveness in dating behavior', Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 4, pp. 508-16 (1966); J.N. Spuhler, 'Assortative mating with respect to physical characteristics', Eugenics Quarterly 15, pp. 128-40 (1968); E. Berscheid and K. Dion, 'Physical attractiveness and dating choice: a test of the matching hypothesis', Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 7, 173-89 (1971); S.G. Vandenberg, 'Assortative mating, or who marries whom? , Behavior Genetics 2, pp. 127-57 (1972); G.E. DeYoung and B. Fleischer,

Motivational and personality trait relationships in mate selection', Behavior Genetics 6, pp. 16 (1976); E. Crognier, 'Assortative mating for physical features in an African population from Chad', Journal of Human Evolution 6, pp. 105114 (1977); P.N. Bender and M.D. Newcomb, Longitudinal study of marital success and failure', Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 46, pp. 1053-70 (1978); R.C. Johnson etal, 'Secular change in degree of assortative mating for ability? , Behavior Genetics 10, PP- 18 (1980); W.E. Nance et al, 'A model for the analysis of mate selection in the marriages of twins', Acta Geneticae Medicae Gemellologiae 29, pp. 91-101 (1980); D. Thiessen and B. Gregg, 'Human assortative mating and genetic equilibrium: an evolutionary perspective', Ethology and Sociobiology 1, pp. 11140 (1980); D.M. Buss, 'Human mate selection', American Scientist 73, pp. 4751 (1985); A.C. Heath and L.J. Eaves, 'Resolving the effects of phenotype and social background on mate selection', Behavior Genetics 15, pp. 7590 (1985); and A.C. Heath et al, 'No decline in assortative mating for educational level', Behavior Genetics 15, pp. 349-69 (1985). Also relevant is a book by B.I. Murstein, Who Will Marry Whom? Theories and Research in Marital Choice (Springer, New York, 1976). The literature on mate choice by animals is at least as extensive as that for humans. A good starting point is a book edited by Patrick Bateson, Mate Choice (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1983). Bateson's own studies on Japanese quail are summarized in Chapter Eleven of that book, and also in his papers 'Sexual imprinting and optimal outbreeding', Nature 273, pp. 659-60 (1978) and 'Preferences for cousins in Japanese quail', Nature 295, pp. 236-37 (1982). Studies of mice and rats that grow up to prefer the perfumes of their mothers or fathers are described by T.J. Pillion and E.M. Blass, 'Infantile experience with suckling odors determines adult sexual behavior in male rats', Science 231, pp. 729-31 (1986), and by B. D'Udine and E. Alleva, 'Early experience and sexual preferences in rodents', pp. 311-27 in the book cited above by Patrick Bateson.

Finally, some other relevant papers are cited under the further readings for Chapters Three, Four and Six.

Chapter 6: Sexual Selection, and the Origin of Human Races

Darwin's own classic account is still a good introduction to natural selection: jCharles Darwin, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life (John Murray, London, 1859). An outstanding modern account is that of Ernst Mayr, Animal Species and Evolution (Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1963). Three books by Carleton S. Coon describe human geographic variation, compare it to geographic variation in climate, and attempt to account for human variation in terms of natural selection. They are The Origin of Races (Knopf, New York, 1962), The Living Races of Man (Knopf, New York, 1965), and Racial Adaptations (Nelson-Hall, Chicago, 1982). Three other relevant books are by Stanley M. Garn, Human Races, 2nd edition (Thomas, Springfield, Illinois, 1965), especi-338-FURTHER READING ally its Chapter Five; K.F. Dyer, The Biology of Racial Integration (Scientechnica, Bristol, 1974), especially its Chapters Two and Three; and A.S. Boughey, Man and the Environment, 2nd edition (Macmillan, New York, 1975).

Interpretations of geographic variation in human skin colour in terms of natural selection are put forward by W.F. Loomis, 'Skin-pigment regulation of vitamin-D biosynthesis in man', Science 157, pp. 5016 (1967); Vernon Riley, Pigmentation (Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York, 1972), especially its Chapter Two; R.F. Branda and J.W. Eaton, 'Skin color and nutrient photolysis: an evolutionary hypothesis', Science 201, pp. 625-26 (1978); P.J. Byard, 'Quantitative genetics of human skin color', Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 24, pp. 123-37 (1981); and WJ. Hamilton III, Life's Color Code (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1983). Human geographic variation in response to cold is described by G.M. Brown and J. Page, 'The effect of chronic exposure to cold on temperature and blood flow of the hand', Journal of Applied Physiology 5, pp. 22127 (1952), and T. Adams and B.G. Covino, 'Racial variations to a standardized cold stress', Journal Of Applied Physiology 12, pp. 9-12 (1958).

Just as for natural selection, Darwin's own account remains a good introduction to sexual selection: Charles Darwin, The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex (John Murray, London, 1871). The further readings listed under Chapter Five for mate selection by animals are also relevant to this chapter. Make Andersson describes his experiments on how female widowbirds responded to males with artificially shortened or lengthened tails in an article 'Female choice selects for extreme tail length in a widowbird', Nature 299, pp. 818-20 (1982). Three papers describing mate choice by white, blue, or pink snow geese are by F. Cooke and C.M. McNally: 'Mate selection and colour preferences in Lesser Snow Geese', Behaviour 53, pp. 151-70 (1975); F. Cooke et al, 'Assortative mating in Lesser Snow Geese (Anser caerulescensY, Behavior Genetics 6, pp. 127-40 (1976); and F. Cooke andJ.C. Davies, 'Assortative mating, mate choice, and reproductive fitness in Snow Geese', pp. 279-95 in Mate Choice by Patrick Bateson, already cited.

Chapter 7: Why Do We Grow Old and Die?

The classic paper in which George Williams presented an evolutionary theory of aging is 'Pleiotropy, natural selection, and the evolution of senescence', Evolution 11, pp. 398411 (1957). Other papers that have employed evolutionary approaches are by G. Bell, 'Evolutionary and non-evolutionary theories of senescence', American Naturalist 124, pp. 600-3 (1984); E. Beutler, 'Planned obsolescence in humans and in other biosystems', Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 29, pp. 175-79 (1986); R.J. Goss, 'Why mammals don't regenerateor do they? , News in Physiological Sciences 2, 112-15 (1987); L.D. Mueller, 'Evolution of accelerated senescence in laboratory populations of Drosophila, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 84, pp. 1974-77 (1987); and T.B. Kirkwood, The nature and causes of ageing', pp. 193206 in a book edited by D. Evered and J. Whelan, Research and the Ageing Population (John Wiley, Chichester, 1988).

Two books exemplifying the physiological (proximate-cause) approach to aging are by R.L. Walford, The Immunologic Theory of Aging (Munksgaard, Copenhagen, 1969), and MacFarlane Burnett, Intrinsic Mutagenesis: A Genetic Approach to Ageing (John Wiley, New York, 1974). Some papers exemplifying the literature on biological repair and turnover are by R.W. Young, 'Biological renewal: applications to the eye', Transactions of the Opthalmological Societies of the United Kingdom 102, pp. 4275 (1982); A. Bernstein et al, 'Genetic damage, mutation, and the evolution of sex', Science 229, pp. 1277-81 (1985); J.F. Dice, 'Molecular determinants of protein-half lives in eukaryotic cells', Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology journal 1, pp. 349-57 (1987); P.C. Hanawalt, 'On the role of DNA damage and repair processes in aging: evidence for and against', pp. 183-98 in a book edited by H.R. Warner et al, Modern Biological Theories of Aging (Raven Press, New York, 1987); and M. Radman and R. Wagner, The high fidelity of DNA duplication', Scientific American, pp. 40^46 (August 1988). While all readers will be aware of the changes in their own bodies with age, three papers describing the cruel facts for three different systems are R.L. Doty et al, 'Smell identification ability: changes with age', Science 226, pp. 1441^3 (1984); J. Menkenrf al, 'Age and infertility', Science 233, pp. 1389-94 (1986); and R. Katzman, 'Normal aging and the brain', News in Physiological Sciences 3, pp. 197200 (1988).

The Adventure of the Creeping Man' will be found in Arthur Conan Doyle's TKe Complete Sherlock Holmes (Doubleday, New York, 1960). If you think that attempts at self-rejuvenation by hormonal injections were only a fantasy of Doyle's, read how it was actually attempted in David Hamilton, The Monkey Gland Affair (Chatto and Windus, London, 1986). Chapter 8: Bridges to Human Language

How Monkeys See the World (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1990), by Dorothy Cheney and Robert Seyfarth, is not only a readable account of vervet vocal communications, but also a good introduction to studies of how animals in general communicate to each other and view the world. Derek Bickerton has described his studies of creolization and his views on human language origins in two books and several papers. The books are Roots of Language (Karoma Press, Ann Arbor, 1981) and Language and Species (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1990). The papers include 'Creole languages', in Scientific American 249, no. 1, pp. 116-22 (1983); The language bioprogram hypothesis', in Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7, pp. 173221 (1984); and 'Creole languages and the bioprogram', in Linguistics: the Cambridge Survey 2, pp. 267-84, edited by F.J. Newmeyer (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1988). The second of those articles includes, and the third is immediately followed by, presentations by other authors whose views often diverge from Bickerton's.

Pidgin and Creole Languages, by Robert A. Hall, Jnr (Cornell University Press, Ithaca, 1966), is a less recent account of its subject. The best introduction to Neo-Melanesian is Thejacaranda Diary and Grammar ofMelanesian Pidgin by F. Mihalic (Jacaranda Press, Milton, Queensland, 1971). Among the many influential books on language by Noam Chomsky are Language and Mind (Harcourt Brace, New York, 1968) and Knowledge of Language: Its Nature, Origin, and Use (Praeger, New York, 1985).

References to some related fields that I mentioned only briefly in Chapter Eight will also be of interest. Susan Curtiss's book Genie: a Psycholinguistic Study of a Modern-Day "Wild Child" (Academic Press, New York, 1977) both relates a gut-wrenching human tragedy and is a detailed study of a child whose parents' pathologies isolated her from normal human language and contact until the age of thirteen. Recent accounts of efforts to teach language-like communication to captive apes include Carolyn Ristau's and Donald Robbins's paper 'Language and the great apes: a critical review', in Advances in the Study of Behavior, vol. XII, pp. 141255, edited by J.S. Rosenblatt et al (Academic Press, New York, 1982); E.S. Savage-Rumbaugh, Ape Language: from Conditioned Response to Symbol (Columbia University Press, 1986); and 'Symbols: their communicative use, comprehension, and combination by bonobos (Pan paniscus) , by E.S. Savage-Rumbaugh et al, in Advances in Infant Research vol. VI, pp. 221-78, edited by Carolyn Rovee-Collier and Lewis Lipsitt (Ablex Publishing Corporation, Norwood, New Jersey, 1990). Some starting points in the large literature on early language learning by children include Melissa Bowerman's chapter 'Language Development' m the Handbook of Cross-cultural Psychology: Developmental Psychology, vol. IV, pp. 93-185, edited by Harvey Triandis and Alastair Heron (Allyn and Bacon, Boston, 1981); Eric Wanner and Lila Gleitman, Language Acquisition: the State of the Art (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1982); Dan Slobin, The Crosslinguistic Study of Language Acquisition, vols I341and II (Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, New Jersey, 1985); and Frank S. Kessel, The Development of Language and Language Researchers: Essays in Honor of Roger Brown (Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, New Jersey, 1988). Chapter 9: Animal Origins of Art

The book that describes elephant art and illustrates it with photographs of the artist and of her drawings is by David Gucwa and James Ehmann, To Whom It May Concern: An Investigation of the Art of Elephants (Norton, New York, 1985). For a similar account of ape art, see Desmond Morris, The Biology of Art (Knopf, New York, 1962). Animal art is also treated by Thomas Sebeok, The Play of Musement (Indiana University Press, Bloomington, 1981). There are two fine illustrated books on bowerbirds and birds of paradise, with pictures of their bowers: E.T. Gilliard, Birds of Paradise and Bower Birds (Natural History Press, Garden City, New York, 1969), and W.T. Cooper and J.M. Forshaw, The Birds of Paradise and Bower Birds (Collins, Sydney, 1977). For a more recent technical account, see my article 'Biology of birds of paradise and bowerbirds', Annual Reviews of Ecology and Systematics 17, pp. 1737 (1986). I published two accounts of the bowerbird species with the fanciest bower, 'Bower building and decoration by the bowerbird Amblyornis inornatus', Ethology 7, pp. 177204 (1987); and 'Experimental study of bower decoration by the bowerbird Amblyornis inornatus, using colored poker chips', American Naturalist 131, pp. 631-53 (1988). Gerald Borgia proved by experiments that female bowerbirds really do care about males' bower decorations, in his paper, 'Bower quality, number of decorations and mating success of male satin bowerbirds (Ptilonorhynchus violaceus): an experimental analysis', Animal Behaviour 33, pp. 266-71 (1985). Birds of paradise with somewhat similar habits are described by S.G. and M. A. Pruett-Jones in 'The use of court objects by Lawes' Parotia', Condor 90, pp. 538-45 (1988).

Chapter 10: Agriculture's Two-Edged Sword

The health consequences of giving up hunting for farming receive detailed treatment in a book edited by Mark Cohen and George Armelagos, Paleopathology at the Origins of Agriculture (Academic Press, Orlando, 1984), and in The Paleolithic Prescription (Harper and Row, New York, 1988) by S. Boyd Eaton, Marjorie Shostak, and Melvin Konner.

The world's hunter-gatherers are summarized in a book edited by Richard B. Lee and Irven DeVore, Man the Hunter (Aldine, Chicago, 1968). References describing the work schedule of hunter-gatherers, and in some cases comparing it with that of farmers, include the same book, plus the book by Richard Lee The IKung San (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1979), and the following articles: K. Hawkes et al, 'Ache at the settlement: contrasts between farming and foraging', Human Ecology 15, pp. 133-61 (1987); K. Hawkes et al, 'Hardworking Hadza grandmothers', pp. 34166 in Comparative Socioecology of Mammals and Man, edited by V. Standen and R. Foley (London, Blackwell, 1987); and K. Hill and A.M. Hurtado, 'Hunter-gatherers of the New World', American Scientist 77, pp. 437-43 (1989). The slow spread of ancient farmers across Europe is described by Albert J. Ammerman and L.L. Cavalli-Sforza, The Neolithic Transition and the Genetics of Populations in Europe (Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1984). Chapter 11: Why Do We Smoke, Drink, and Use Dangerous Drugs? Amotz Zahavi explains his handicap theory in two papers, 'Mate selectiona selection for a handicap', Journal of Theoretical Biology 53, pp. 205-14 (1975), and 'The cost of honesty (further remarks on the handicap principle) , Journal of Theoretical Biology 67, pp. 603-5 (1977). Two other well-known models of how animals evolve to choose their mates are the runaway selection model and the truth-in-advertising model. The former was developed in a book by R.A. Fisher, The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1930); the latter, in a paper by A. Kodric-Brown and J.H. Brown 'Truth in advertising: the kinds of traits favoured by sexual selection', American Naturalist 14, pp. 309-23 (1984). Melvin Konner develops another perspective on risky human behaviour patterns in a chapter 'Why the reckless survive' from his book with the same title (Viking, New York, 1990). For discussions of American Indian enemas, see Peter Furst's and Michael Coe's account of the discovery of Maya enema vases in their article 'Ritual enemas', Natural History Magazine 86, pp. 8891 (March 1977); Johannes Wilbert's book Tobacco and Shamanism in South America (Yale University Press, New Haven, 1987); and Justin Kerr's The Maya Vase Book, 2 vols (Kerr Associates, New York, 1989 and 1990), illustrating Maya vases and analysing one enema vase in detail on pp. 349-61 of Vol. II. Also relevant are the many further readings on sexual selection and mate choice already listed under Chapters Five and Six.

Chapter 12: Alone in a Crowded Universe

Everything that you might want to know about woodpeckers in general, and about each particular species of them, is contained in a book by Lester L. Short, Woodpeckers of the World (Delaware Museum of Natural History, Greenville, Delaware, 1982). Pioneering calculations arguing for the existence of intelligent extraterrestrial life were carried out by I. S. Shklovskii and Carl Sagan, Intelligent Life in the Universe (Holden-Day, San Francisco, 1966).

Chapter 13: The Last First Contacts

Bob Connolly's and Robin Anderson's book First Contact (Viking Penguin, New York, 1987) describes first contact in the New Guinea highlands through the eyes of both the whites and the New Guineans who met there. The quotation on page 207 is taken from their book. Other gripping accounts of first contacts and of pre-contact conditions include Don Richardon's Peace Child (Regal Books, Ventura, 1974) for the Sawi people of southwest New Guinea, and Napoleon A. Chagnon's Yanomamo, The Fierce People, 3rd edition (Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, 1983) for the Yanomamo Indians of Venezuela and Brazil. A clear history of the exploration of New Guinea is by Gavin Souter, New Guinea: The Last Unknown (Angus and Robertson, London, 1963). The leaders of the Third Archbold Expedition describe their entrance into the Grand Valley of the Balim River in the report by Richard Archbold et al, 'Results of the Archbold Expeditions. No. 41. Summary of the 19381939 New Guinea expedition', Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 79, pp. 197288 (1942). Two accounts by earlier explorers who attempted to penetrate the mountains of New Guinea are by A.F.R. Wollaston, Pygmies and Papuans (Smith Elder, London, 1912), and A.S, Meek, A Naturalist in Cannibal Land (Fisher Unwin, London, 1913). Chapter 14: Accidental Conquerors

Books that discuss plant as well as animal domestication in relation to the development of civilization include C.D. Darlington, The Evolution of Man and Society (Simon and Schuster, New York, 1969); Peter J. Ucko and G.W. Dimbleby, The Domestication and Exploitation of Plants and Animals (Aldine, Chicago, 1969); Erich Isaac, Geography of Domestication (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1970); and David R. Harris and Gordon C. Hillman, Foraging and Farming (Unwin Hyman, London, 1989).

References on animal domestication include S. Bokonyi, History of Domestic Mammals in Central and Eastern Europe (Akademiai Kiado, Budapest, 1974); S.J.M. Davis and F.R. Valla, 'Evidence for domestication of the dog 12,000 years ago in the Natufian of Israel', Nature 276, pp. 608-10 (1978); Juliet Glutton-Brock, 'Man-made dogs', Science 197, pp. 1340-42 (1977), and Domesticated Animals from Early Times (British Museum of Natural History, London, 1981); Andrew Sherratt, 'Plough and pastoralism: aspects of the secondary products revolution', pp. 261305 in a book edited by lan Hodder et al, Pattern of the Past (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1981); Stanley J. Olsen, Origins of the Domestic Dog (University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 1985); E.S. Wing, 'Domestication of Andean mammals', pp. 246-64 in High Altitude Tropical Biogeography, edited by F. Vuilleumier and M. Monasterio (Oxford University Press, New York, 1986); Simon J.M. Davis, The Archaeology of Animals (Yale University Press, New Haven, 1987); Dennis C. Turner and Patrick Bateson, The Domestic Cat: The Biology of its Behaviour (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1988); and Wolf Herre and Manfred Rohrs, Haustiere - zoologisch gesehen, 2nd edition (Fischer, Stuttgart, 1990).

Domestication specifically of the horse, and its importance, are the subjects of books by Frank G. Row, The Indian and the Horse (University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, 1955); Robin Law, The Horse in West African History (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1980); and Matthew J. Kust, Man and Horse in History (Plutarch Press, Alexandria, Virginia, 1983). The development of wheeled vehicles, including war chariots, is treated in books by M. A. LittauerandJ.H. Crouwel, Wheeled Vehicles and Ridden Animals in the Ancient Near East (Brill, Leiden, 1979) and by Stuart Piggott, The Earliest Wheeled Transport (Thames and Hudson, London, 1983). Edward Shaughnessy describes the arrival of the horse and chariot in

China in 'Historical perspectives on the introduction of the chariot into China', Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 48, pp. 189237 (1988).

For general accounts of plant domestication, see Kent V. Flannery, 'The origins of agriculture', Annual Review of Anthropology 2, pp. 271310 (1973); Charles B. Heiser, Jnr, Seed to Civilization, 2nd edition (Freeman, San Francisco, 1981), and Of Plants and Peoples (University of Oklahoma Press, Norton, 1985); David Rindos, The Origins of Agriculture: an Evolutionary Perspective (Academic Press, New York, 1984); and Hugh H. Utis, 'Maize evolution and agricultural origins', pp. 195213 in Grass Systematics and Evolution, edited by T.R. Soderstrom et al (Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington DC, 1987). This and other papers by Iltis are a stimulating source of ideas about the differing ease of cereal domestication in the Old and New World. Plant domestication specifically in the Old World is treated by Jane Renfrew, Palaeoethnobotany (Columbia University Press, New York, 1973), and by Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf, Domestication of Plants in the Old World (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1988). Corresponding accounts for the New World include Richard S. MacNeish, 'The food-gathering and incipient agricultural stage of prehistoric Middle America', pp. 413-26 in the Handbook of Middle American Indians, edited by Robert Wauchope and Robert C. West, Vol. I: Natural Environment and Early Cultures (University of Texas Press, Austin, 1964); P.C. Mangelsdorf et al, 'Origins of agriculture in Middle America', pp. 42745 in the book by Wauchope and West; D. Ugent, The potato', Science 170, pp. 1161-66 (1970); C.B. Heiser, Jnr, 'Origins of some cultivated New World plants', Annual Reviews of Ecology and Systematics 10, pp. 309-26 (1979); H.H. Iltis, 'From teosinte to maize: the catastrophic sexual dismutation', Science 222, pp. 886-94 (1983); William F. Keegan, Emergent Horticultural Economies of the Eastern Woodlands (Southern Illinois University, Carbon-dale, 1987); and B.D. Smith, 'Origins of agriculture in eastern North America', Science 246, pp. 1566-71 (1989). Three pioneering books point out the asymmetrical intercontinental spread of diseases, pests, and weeds: William H. McNeill, Plagues and Peoples (Anchor Press, Garden City, New York, 1976); and Alfred W. Crosby, The Columbian Exchange: Biological and Cultural Consequences of 1492 (Greenwood Press, Westport, 1972), and Ecological Imperialism: The Biological Expansion of Europe, 900-1900 (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1986).

Chapter 15: Horses, Hittites, and History

Two stimulating, knowledgeable recent books summarizing the Indo-European problem are by Colin Renfrew, Archaeology and Language (Jonathan Cape, London, 1987), and J.P. Mallory, In Search of the Indo-Europeans (Thames and Hudson, London, 1989). For the reasons explained iff my chapter, I agree with Mallory's conclusions, and disagree with Renfrew's, concerning the approximate time and place of proto-Indo-European origins. An older but still useful comprehensive multi-authored book is by George Cardona et al, Indo-European and Indo-Europeans (University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, 1970). A journal titled (what else?) The Journal of Indo-European Studies is the main outlet for technical publication in this field.

The view that both Mallory and I find persuasive is supported in the writings of Marija Gimbutas, who is the author of four books in this field: The Baits (Praeger, New York, 1963), The Slavs (Thames and Hudson, London, 1971), The Goddesses and Gods of Old Europe (Thames and Hudson, London, 1982), and The Language of the Goddess (Harper and Row, New York, 1989). Gimbutas also described her work in chapters in the book by Cardona et al cited above, in the books by Polome and by Bernhard and Kandler-Palsson cited below, and in the Journal of Indo-European Studies 1, pp. 1-20 and 163214 (1973); 5, pp. 277338 (1977); 8, pp. 273315 (1980); and 13, pp. 185201 (1985).

Books or monographs dealing with early Indo-European peoples themselves are by Emile Benveniste, Indo-European Language and Society (Faber and Faber, London, 1973); Edgar Polome, The Indo-Europeans in the Fourth and Third Millenia (Karoma, Ann Arbor, 1982); Wolfram Bernhard and Anneliese Kandler-Palsson, Ethnogenese europaischer Volker (Fischer, Stuttgart, 1986); and Wolfram Nagel, 'Indogermanen und Alter Orient: Ruckblick und Ausblick auf den Stand des Indogermanen-problems', Mitteilungen der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft zu Berlin 119, pp. 157213 (1987). Books on the languages themselves include those by Henrik Birnbaum and Jaan Puhvel, Ancient Indo-European Dialects (University of California Press, Berkeley, 1966); W.B. Lockwood, Indo-European Philology (Hutchinson, London, 1969); Norman Bird, The Distribution of Indo-European Root Morphemes (Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden, 1982); and Philip Baldi, An Introduction to the Indo-European Languages (Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale, 1983). Paul Friedrich's book Proto-Indo-European Trees (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1970) uses the evidence of tree names in an attempt to deduce the Indo-European homeland.

W.P. Lehmann and L. Zgusta provide and discuss a sample of reconstructed proto-Indo-European in their chapter 'Schleicher's tale after a century', pp. 45566 in Studies in Diachronic, Synchronic, and Typological Linguistics, edited by Bela Brogyanyi (Benjamins, Amsterdam, 1979).

The references to the domestication and importance of horses cited under Chapter Fourteen are also relevant to the role of horses in the Indo-European expansion. Papers specifically on this subject are by David Anthony, 'The "Kurgan culture", Indo-European origins and the domestication of the horse: a reconsideration', Current Anthropology 27, pp. 291313 (1986); and by David Anthony and Dorcas Brown, The origins of horseback riding', Antiquity 65, pp. 2238 (1991).

Chapter 16: In Black and White

Three books providing general surveys of genocide are by Irving Horowitz, Genocide: State Power and Mass Murder (Transaction Books, New Brunswick, 1976); Leo Kuper, The Pity of it All (Gerald Duck-worth, London, 1977); and Leo Kuper, Genocide: Its Political Use in the 20th Century (Yale University Press, New

Haven, 1981). A gifted psychiatrist, Robert J. Lifton, has published studies of the psychological effects of genocide on its perpetrators and survivors, including Death in Life:

Survivors of Hiroshima (Random House, New York, 1967) and The Broken Connection

(Simon and Schuster, New York, 1979).

Books that describe the extermination of the Tasmanians and other native Australian groups include N.J.B. Plomley, Friendly Mission: The Tasmanian Journals and Papers of George

Augustus Robinson 18291834 (Tasmanian Historical Research Association, Hobart, 1966);

C.D. Rowley, The Destruction of Aboriginal Society, Vol. I (Australian National University

Press, Canberra, 1970); and Lyndall Ryan, The Aboriginal Tasmanians (University of

Queensland Press, St. Lucia, 1981). Patricia Cobern's letter indignantly denying that

Australian whites exterminated the Tasmanians has been reprinted as an appendix to the book by J. Peter White and James F. O'Connell, A Prehistory of Australia, New Guinea, and Sahul

(Academic Press, New York, 1982).

Among the many books detailing the extermination of American Indians by white settlers are

Wilcomb E. Washburn, 'The moral and legal justification for dispossessing the Indians', pp. 1532 in Seventeenth Century America, edited by James Morton Smith (University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, 1959); Alvin M. Josephy, Jnr, The American Heritage Book of Indians (Simon and Schuster, New York, 1961); Howard Peckham and Charles Gibson, Attitudes of Colonial Powers Towards the American Indian (University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City, 1969); Francis Jennings, The Invasion of America: Indians, Colonialism, and the

Cant of Conquest (University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, 1975); Wilcomb E.

Washburn, The Indian in America (Harper and Row, New York, 1975); Arrell Morgan

Gibson, The American Indian, Prehistory to the Present (Heath, Lexington, Massachusetts, 1980); and Wilbur H. Jacobs, Dispossessing the American Indian (University of Oklahoma

Press, Norman, 1985). The extermination of the Yahi Indians, and the survival of Ishi, are the subjects of Theodora Kroeber's classic book Ishi in Two Worlds: A Biography of the Last

Wild Indian in North America (University of California Press, Berkeley, 1961). The extermination of Brazil's Indians is treated by Sheldon Davis, Victims of the Miracle

(Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1977).

Genocide under Stalin is described in books by Robert Conquest, including The Harvest of Sorrow

(Oxford University Press, New York, 1986).

Accounts of murder and mass murder of animals by other animals of the same species are given by

E.O. Wilson, Sociobiology (Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1975); Cynthia Moss, Portraits in the Wild, 2nd edition

(University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1982); and Jane Goodall, The Chimpanzees of Gombe

(Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1986).

Chapter 17: The Golden Age that Never Was

Extinction of animals in the Late Pleistocene and Early Recent era are described comprehensively in the book edited by Paul Martin and Richard Klein, Quaternary

Extinctions (University of Arizonia Press, Tucson, 1984). For the history of deforestation, see

John Perlin's book A Forest Journey (Norton, New York, 1989).

Comprehensive accounts of New Zealand's plants, animals, geology, and climate will be found in a book edited by G. Kuschel, Biogeography and Ecology in New Zealand (Junk,

V.T. Hague, 1975). New Zealand examples of extinction are summarized in chapters 3234 of the book by Martin and Klein, cited above. Moas are the subject of a supplement to the

New Zealand Journal of Ecology, Vol. XII (1989); see especially the articles by Richard

Holdaway on pp. 1125, and by lan Atkinson and R.M. Greenwood on pp. 6796. Other key articles relevant to moas are by G. Caughley, 'The colonization of New Zealand by the

Polynesians', Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 18, pp. 245-70 (1988), and by A.

Anderson, 'Mechanics of overkill in the extinction of New Zealand moas', Journal of

Archaeological Science 16, pp. 137151 (1989).

Examples of extinction in Madagascar and Hawaii are described in Chapters 26 and 35 respectively of the book by Martin and Klein, cited above. The Henderson Island story is told by David Steadman and Storrs Olson, 'Bird remains from an archaeological site on Henderson Island, South Pacific: man-caused extinctions on an uninhabited island', Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 82, pp. 6191-95 (1985). See under suggested reading for Chapter Eighteen for accounts of species' extinction in the Americas. The grisly end of Easter Island civilization is recounted by Patrick V. Kirch in his book The Evolution of the Polynesian Chiefdoms (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1984). Easter's deforestation was reconstructed by J. Flenley, 'Stratigraphic evidence of environmental change on Easter Island', Asian Perspectives 22, pp. 3340 (1979), and by J. Henley and S. King, 'Late Quaternary pollen records from Easter Island', Nature 307, pp. 4750 (1984).

Some accounts of the rise and fall of Anasazi settlement at Chaco Canyon are J.L. Betancourt and T.R. Van Devender, 'Holocene vegetation in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico', Science 214, pp. 656-58349(1981); M.L. Samuels and J.L. Betancourt, 'Modeling the long-term effects of fuelwood harvests on pinyon-juniper woodlands', Environmental Management 6, pp. 505-15 (1982);J.L. Betancourt etal, 'Prehistoric long-distance transport of construction beams, Chaco Canyon, New Mexico', American Antiquity 51, pp. 370-75 (1986); Kendrick Frazier, People of Chaco: A Canyon and its Culture (Norton, New York, 1986); and Alden C. Hayes et al, Archaeological Surveys of Chaco Canyon (University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, 1987).

Everything that anyone would want to know about Packrat Middens is described in the eponymous book by Julio Betancourt, Thomas Van Devender, and Paul Martin (University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 1990). In particular, Chapter Nineteen of that book analyses the hyrax middens from Petra.

The possible link between environmental damage and the decline of Greek civilization is explored by K.O. Pope and T.H. Van Andel in'Late Quaternary civilization and soil formation in the southern Argolid: its history, causes and archaeological implications', Journal of Archaeological Science 11, pp. 281306 (1984); T.H. van Andel etal, 'Five thousand years of land use and abuse in the southern Argolid', Hesperia 55, pp. 103-28 (1986); and C. Runnels and T.H. van Andel, 'The evolution of settlement in the southern Argolid, Greece: an economic explanation', Hesperia 56, pp. 303-34 (1987).

Books on the rise and fall of Maya civilization include those by T. Patrick Culbert, The Classic Maya Collapse (University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, 1973); Michael D. Coe, The Maya, 3rd edition (Thames and Hudson, London, 1984); Sylvanus G. Morley et al, The Ancient Maya, 4th edition (Stanford University Press, Stanford, 1983); and Charles Gallenkamp, Maya: The Riddle and Rediscovery of A Lost Civilization, 3rd revised edition (Viking Penguin, New York, 1985).

For a comparative account of collapses of civilizations, see The Collapse of Ancient States and Civilizations, edited by Norman Yoffee and George L. Cowgill (University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 1988).

Chapter 18: Blitzkrieg and Thanksgiving in the New World

Three books provide good starting points and many references to the large, contentious literature on human settlement and the extinction of large animals in the New World. They are the book by Paul Martin and Richard Klein cited under Chapter Seventeen; Brian Pagan, The Great Journey (Thames and Hudson, New York, 1987); and Ronald C. Carlisle (editor), Americans Before Columbus: Ice-Age Origins (Ethnology Monographs No. 12, Department of Anthropology, University of Pittsburgh, 1988).

The blitzkrieg hypothesis was outlined by Paul Martin in his article 'The Discovery of America', Science 179; pp. 969-74 (1973), and modelled mathematically by J.E. Mosimann and Martin in 'Simulating overkill by Paleoindians', American Scientist 63, pp. 30413 (1975).

The series of articles that C. Vance Haynes, Jnr has published on Clovis culture and its origins include a chapter on pp. 34553 of the book by Martin and Klein, cited under Chapter Seventeen, and the following selected articles: 'Fluted projectile points: their age and dispersion', Science 145, pp. 1408-13 (1961); The Clovis culture', Canadian Journal of Anthropology 1, pp. 115-21 1980); and 'Clovis origin update', The Kiva 52, pp. 8393 (1987). For the simultaneous extinction of the Shasta ground sloth and Harrington's mountain goat, see J.I. Mead etal, 'Extinction of Harring-ton's mountain goat', Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 83, pp. 836-39 (1986). Critiques of pre-Clovis claims are provided by Roger Owen in a chapter 'The Americas: the case against an Ice-Age human population', pp. 517-63 in The Origins of Modern Humans, edited by Fred H. Smith and Frank Spencer (Liss, New York, 1984); by Dena Dincauze, 'An archaeo-logical evaluation of the case for pre-Clovis occupations', in Advances in World Archaeology 3, pp. 275323 (1984); and by Thomas Lynch, 'Glacial-age man in South America? A critical review', in American Antiquity 55, pp. 1236 (1990). Arguments in support of a pre-Clovis date for human occupation levels at Meadowcroft Rockshelter are summarized by James Adovasio in 'Meadowcroft Rockshelter, 19731977: a synopsis', pp. 97-131 in J.E. Ericson et al, Peopling of the New World (Los Altos, California, 1982), and in 'Who are those guys?: some biased thoughts on the initial peopling of the New World', pp. 4561 in Americans Before Columbus: Ice-Age Origins, edited by Ronald C. Carlisle, cited above. The first of several projected volumes with a detailed description of the Monte Verde site is by T.D. Dillehay, Monte Verde: A Late Pleistocene Settlement in Chile', Vol. I: Palaeoenvironment and Site Contexts (Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington DC, 1989).

Readers interested in keeping up on the story of the first Americans and the last mammoths will enjoy subscribing to a quarterly newspaper, Mammoth Trumpet, obtainable from the Center for the Study of the First Americans, 495 College Avenue, Orono, Maine 04473. Chapter 19: The Second Cloud

Species-by-species accounts of extinct and endangered species are contained in the Red Data Books published by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (abbreviated IUCN).

There are separate books for various groups of plants and animals, and separate books are also now appearing for different continents. Corresponding books for birds have been prepared by the International Council for Bird Preservation (abbreviated ICBP): Warren B. King, editor, Endangered Birds of the World: The ICBP Red Data Book (Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington DC, 1981); and N.J. Collar and P. Andrew, Birds to Watch: The ICBP World Checklist of Threatened Birds (ICBP, Cambridge, 1988).

A summary and analysis of modern and Ice-Age extinction waves and their mechanisms are provided by my article 'Historic extinctions: a Rosetta Stone for understanding prehistoric extinctions', pp. 824-62 in Quaternary Extinctions by Martin and Klein, cited under Chapter Seventeen. The problem of overlooked species extinctions is discussed in my article 'Extant unless proven extinct? Or extinct unless proven extant? in Conservation Biology 1, pp. 7779 (1987). Terry Erwin estimates the total number of living species in a paper 'Tropical forests: their richness in Coleoptera and other arthropod species', The Cole-opterists' Bulletin 36, pp. 7475 (1982). Further readings on Pleistocene and Early Recent cases of extinction are given under Chapters Seventeen and Eighteen. In addition, Storrs Olson reviews the extinction of island birds in an article 'Extinction on islands: man as a catastrophe', pp. 5053 of Conservation for the Twenty-first Century, edited by David Western and Mary Pearl (Oxford University Press, New York, 1989). lan Atkinson's article on pp. 5475 of the same book, 'Introduced animals and extinctions', summarizes the havoc wrought by rats and other pests. Epilogue Nothing Learned, and Everything Forgotten?

Many excellent books discuss the present and future of the extinction crisis and the other crises now facing humanity, their causes, and what to do about them. Among them are the following: John J. Berger, Restoring the Earth: How Americans are Working to Renew our Damaged Environment (Knopf, New York, 1985); editor, Environmental Restoration: Science and Strategies for Restoring the Earth (Island Press, Washington DC, 1990). John Cairns, Jnr, Rehabilitating Damaged Ecosystems (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, 1988); with K.L. Dickson and E.E. Herricks, Recovery and Restoration of Damaged Ecosystems (University Press of Virginia, Charlottes ville, 1977).

Anne and Paul Ehrlich, Extinction (Random House, New York, 1981); Earth (Franklin Watts, New York, 1987); The Population Explosion (Simon and Schuster, New York, 1990); Healing Earth (Addison Wesley, New York, 1991). Paul Ehrlich et al, The Cold and the Dark (Norton, New York, 1984). D. Furguson and N. Furguson, Sacred Cows at the Public Trough (Maverick Publications, Bend, Oregon, 1983).

Suzanne Head and Robert Heinzman, editors, Lessons of the Rainforest (Sierra Club Books, San Francisco, 1990).

Jeffrey A. McNeely, Economics and Biological Diversity (International Union for the Conservation of Nature, Gland, 1988); Jeffrey A. McNeely et al, Conserving the World's Biological Diversity (International Union for the Conservation of Nature, Gland, 1990). Norman Myers, Conversion of Tropical Moist Forests (National Academy of Sciences, Washington DC, 1980); Gaia: an Atlas of Planet Management (Doubleday, Garden City, New York, 1984); The Primary Source (Norton, New York, 1985).

Michael Oppenheimer and Robert Boyle, Dead Heat: the Race against the Greenhouse Effect (Basic Books, New York, 1990).

Walter V. Reid and Kenton R. Miller, Keeping Options Alive: the Scientific Basis for Conserving Biodiversity (World Resources Institute, Washington DC, 1989).

Sharon L. Roan, Ozone Crisis: the Fifteen-Year Evolution of a Sudden Global Emergency (Wiley, New York, 1989).

Robin Russell Jones and Tom Wigley, editors, Ozone Depletion: Health and Environmental Consequences (Wiley, New York, 1989).

Steven H. Schneider, Global Warming: Are We Entering the Greenhouse Century? second edition (Sierra Club Books, San Francisco, 1990).

Michael E. Soule, editor, Conservation Biology: the Science of Scarcity and Diversity (Sinauer, Sunderland, Massachusetts, 1986).

John Terborgh, Where Have All the Birds Gone? (Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1990). E.O. Wilson, Biophilia (Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1984); editor, Biodiversity (National Academy Press, Washington DC, 1988).

Finally, readers interested enough to want to pursue further readings may also want suggestions about what to do to reduce the risk that our children's generation will become extinct. As I explain in the text, the average citizen can do a good deal, both by being active politically and by giving even modest amounts of money to conservation organizations. Here are the names and addresses of a few of the best-known and largest such organizations, among the many that are worthy of support:

World Wide Fund for Nature, Panda House, Weyside Park, Godalming, Surrey, GU7 1XR, UK.

Greenpeace, 30-1 Islington Green, London, Nl 8XE, UK.

International Council for Bird Preservation, 32 Cambridge Road, Girton, Cambridge, CB3 OPJ,

UK.

International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Avenue du Mont-Blanc,

CH-1196 Gland, Switzerland.

Friends of the Earth, 2628 Underwood Street, London, Nl 7JQ, UK.

Conservation Foundation, Lowther Lodge, 1 Kensington Gore, London, SW7 2AR, UK.


EPILOGUE | The rise and fall of the third chimpanzee | ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS