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1

. Otto Erich Deutsch. Mozart: A Documentary Biography, 3rd ed. (London: Simon and Schuster, 1990), 21. . Diana Deutsch. Absolute pitch, The Psychology of Music, ed. Diana Deutsch, 3rd ed. (San Diego: Elsevier, 1990), 141182.

2

. William Lee Adams. The mysteries of perfect pitch, Psychology Today, July 1, 2006, https://www.psychologytoday.com/articles/200607/themysteries-perfect-pitch.

3

. Robert J.Zatorre. Absolute pitch: A model for understanding the influence of genes and development on neural and cognitive function, Nature Neuroscience 6, 7 (2003): 692695. . Siamak Baharloo, Paul A.Johnston, Susan K.Service, Jane Gitschier, and Nelson B.Freimer. Absolute pitch: An approach for identification of genetic and nongenetic components, American Journal of Human Genetics 62 (1998): 224231.

4

.K.Anders Ericsson and Irene Faivre. Whats exceptional about exceptional abilities?, TheExceptional Brain: Neuropsychology of Talent and Special Abilities, ed. Loraine K.Obler and Deborah Fein (New York: Guilford, 1988), 436473.

5

. Ayako Sakakibara. A longitudinal study of the process of acquiring absolute pitch: A practical report of training with the chord identification method, Psychology of Music 42, 1 (2014): 86111.

6

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7

. Stanley Sadie. Mozart: The Early Years, 17561781 (New York: W.W.Norton, 2006), 18.

8

, , 158,4. 173,7. Neoklis A.Georgopoulos, Anastasia Theodoropoulou, Nikolaos D.Roupas, et al., Growth velocity and final height in elite female rhythmic and artistic gymnasts, Hormones 11, 1 (2012): 6169.

9

. Pauline R.Martin and Samuel W.Fernberger. Improvement in memory span, American Journal of Psychology 41, 1 (1929): 9194.

10

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11

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12

. Steve Oare. Decisions made in the practice room: A qualitative study of middle school students thought processes while practicing, Update: Applications of Research in Music Education 30 (2012): 6370.

13

. Niteesh K.Choudhry, Robert H.Fletcher, and Stephen B.Soumerai. Systematic review: The relationship between clinical experience and quality of health care, Annals of Internal Medicine 142 (2005): 260273. . Paul M.Spengler and Lois A.Pilipis. A comprehensive meta-analysis of the robustness of the experience-accuracy effect in clinical judgment, Journal of Counseling Psychology 62, 3 (2015): 360378.

14

, . .John McCrary, Chess and Benjamin Franklin His pioneering contributions, http://www.benfranklin300.org/_etc_pdf/Chess_John_McCrary.pdf. . Bill Wall. Ben Franklin and chess trivia (2014), www.chess.com/blog/billwall/benjamin-franklin-and-chess-trivia

15

. Christopher L.Tyner. Violin teacher Dorothy DeLay: Step by step, she helps students reach beyond their limits, Investors.com (October 2, 2000).

16

. William G.Chase and K.Anders Ericsson. Skilled memory, in Cognitive Skills and Their Acquisition, ed. John R.Anderson (Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1981), 141189.

17

: Jody Rosen. The knowledge, Londons legendary taxi-driver test, puts up a fight in the age of GPS, New York Times, December 7, 2014, http://tmagazine.blogs.nytimes.com/2014/11/10/london-taxi-test-knowledge/

18

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20

. Eleanor A.Maguire, Katherine Woollett, and Hugo J.Spiers. London taxi drivers and bus drivers: A structural MRI and neuropsychological analysis, Hippocampus 16 (2006): 10911101.

21

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22

. Annette Sterr, MatthiasM. M"uller, Thomas Elbert, Brigitte Rockstroh, Christo Pantev, and Edward Taub. Perceptual correlates of changes in cortical representation of fingers in blind multifinger Braille readers, Journal of Neuroscience 18, 11 (1998): 44174423.

23

. Uri Polat, Clifton Schor, Jian-Liang Tong, Ativ Zomet, Maria Lev, Oren Yehezkel, Anna Sterkin, and Dennis M.Levi. Training the brain to overcome the effect of aging on the human eye, Scientific Reports 2 (2012): 278, doi:10.1038/srep00278.

24

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25

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26

. Fred H.Gage. Neurogenesis in the adult brain, Journal of Neuroscience 22 (2002): 612613.

27

. Karen Chan Barrett, Richard Ashley, Dana L.Strait, and Nina Kraus. Art and science: How musical training shapes the brain, Frontiers in Psychology 4, article 713 (2013). , .

28

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29

. Sandra F.Witelson, Debra L.Kigar, and Thomas Harvey. The exceptional brain of Albert Einstein, The Lancet 353 (1999): 21492153.

30

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31

. Sara L.Bengtsson, Zolt'an Nagy, Stefan Skare Lea Forsman, Hans Forssberg, and Fredrik Ull'en. Extensive piano practicing has regionally specific effects on white matter development, Nature Neuroscience 8 (2005): 11481150.

32

: Eliot Hearst and John Knott. Blindfold Chess: History, Psychology, Techniques, Champions, World Records, and Important Games (Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2009).

33

. . , , , 1973; Hearst and Knott, Blindfold Chess; Alekhines biography, Chess.com, www.chess.com/groups/forumview/alekhines-biography2; Alexander Alekhine, Chessgames.com, www.chessgames.com/perl/chessplayer?pid=10240

34

. Alexander Alekhine, On the Road to a World Championship, 19231927, 1st English ed. (New York: Pergamon Press, 1984), as quoted in Hearst and Knott, Blindfold Chess, 78.

35

. William G.Chase and Herbert A.Simon. Perception in chess, Cognitive Psychology 4 (1973): 5581. . . Adrianus Dingeman De Groot. Thought and Choice in Chess (The Hague: Mouton, 1965); Adrianus Dingeman De Groot. Perception and memory versus thought: Some old ideas and recent findings, Problem Solving, ed. B.Kleimnuntz (New York: Wiley, 1966), 1950.

36

. Andrew Waters, Fernand Gobet, and Gery Leyden. Visuo-spatial abilities in chess players, British Journal of Psychology 93 (2002): 557565.

37

. Paul Ward, K.Anders Ericsson, and A.Mark Williams. Complex perceptual-cognitive expertise in a simulated task environment, Journal of Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making 7 (2013): 231254.

38

.K.Anders Ericsson and Walter Kintsch. Long-term working memory, Psychological Review 102, 2 (1995): 211245.

39

: Marlene Scardamalia and Carl Bereiter. Knowledge telling and knowledge transforming in written composition, in Advances in Applied Psycholinguistics, ed. Sheldon Rosenberg (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1987)

40

. Roger Chaffin and GabrielaImreh. Pulling teeth and torture: Musical memory and problem solving, Thinking and Reasoning 3, 4 (1997): 315336; Roger Chaffin and GabrielaImreh, A comparison of practice and self-report as sources of information about the goals of expert practice, Psychology of Music 29 (2001): 3969; Roger Chaffin, GabrielaImreh, Anthony F.Lemieux, and Colleen Chen, Seeing the big picture: Piano playing as expert problem solving, Music Perception 20, 4 (2003): 465490.

41

. William L.Oliver and K.Anders Ericsson. Repertory actors memory for their parts, Eighth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Society (Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1986), 399406.

42

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43

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44

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45

. Carla U.Hutchinson, Natalie J.Sachs-Ericsson, and K.Anders Ericsson. Generalizable aspects of the development of expertise in ballet across countries and cultures: A perspective from the expert performance approach, High Ability Studies 24 (2013): 2147.

46

. Ericsson, Tesch-R"omer, and Krampe. The role of deliberate practice, 367368.

47

. K.Anders Ericsson and W.Kintsch. Long-term working memory, Psychological Review 102 (1995): 211245.

48

. Robert T.Hodgson. An examination of judge reliability at a major U.S. wine competition, Journal of Wine Economics 3, 2 (2008): 105113.

49

. Robyn M.Dawes. House of Cards: Psychology and Psychotherapy Built on Myth (New York: Free Press, 1994).

50

. Malcolm Gladwell. Outliers: The Story of Success (New York: Little, Brown), 2008.

51

. Mark Lewisohn. TuneIn (New York: Crown Archetype, 2013).

52

. , ( ), ( ) , , , . . Brooke N.Macnamara, David Z.Hambrick, and Frederick L.Oswald. Deliberate practice and performance in music, games, sports, education, and professions: A meta-analysis, Psychological Science 25 (2014): 16081618. , ; , , , , . K.Anders Ericsson. Challenges for the estimation of an upperbound on relations between accumulated deliberate practice and the associated performance in domains of expertise: Comments on Macnamara, Hambrick, and Oswalds (2014) published meta-analysis https://psy.fsu.edu/faculty/ericsson/ericsson.hp.html. , : , - , . : K.Anders Ericsson. Why expert performance is special and cannot be extrapolated from studies of performance in the general population: A response to criticisms, Intelligence 45 (2014): 81103.

53

. Ericsson, Tesch-R"omer, and Krampe. The role of deliberate practice.

54

.John R.Hayes. The Complete Problem Solver (Philadelphia: FranklinInstitute Press, 1981).

55

. Scott Adams Dilbert, February 7, 2013.

56

. www.turock.com. Art Turock, CompetentIs Not an Option: Build an Elite Leadership Team Following the Talent Development Game Plan of Sports Champions (Kirkland, WA: Pro Practice Publishing, 2015).

57

. William E.Barlow, Chen Chi, Patricia A.Carney, Stephen H.Taplin, Carl DOrsi, Gary Cutter, R.Edward Hendrick, and Joann G.Elmore. Accuracy of screening mammography interpretation by characteristics of radiologists, Journal of the National CancerInstitute 96 (2004): 18401850.

58

.K.Anders Ericsson. Deliberate practice and the acquisition and maintenance of expert performance in medicine and related domains, Academic Medicine 79 (2004): S 70S 81.

59

. Helena M.Mentis, Amine Chellali, and Steven Schwaitzberg, Learning to see the body: Supporting instructional practices in laparoscopic surgical procedures, in Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (New York: Association for Computing Machinery, 2014), 21132122.

60

. Louise Forsetlund, Arild Bjorndal, Arash Rashidian, Gro Jamtvedt, Mary Ann OBrien, Fredric M.Wolf, Dave Davis, Jan Odgaard-Jensen, and Andrew D.Oxman. Continuing education meetings and workshops: Effects on professional practice and health care outcomes, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2 (2012): CD 003030.

61

.J.M.Rodriguez-Paz, M.Kennedy, E.Salas, A.W.Wu, J.B.Sexton, E.A.Hunt, and P.J.Pronovost Beyond see one, do one, teach one: Toward a different training paradigm, Quality and Safety in Health Care 18 (2009): 6368.

62

.John D.Birkmeyer, Jonathan F.Finks, Amanda OReilly, Mary Oerline, Arthur M.Carlin, Andre R.Nunn, Justin Dimick, Mousumi Banerjee, and Nancy J.O.Birkmeyer. Surgical skill and complication rates after bariatric surgery, New England Journal of Medicine 369 (2013): 14341442.

63

.K.Anders Ericsson. Acquisition and maintenance of medicl expertise: A perspective from the expert performance approach and deliberate practice, Academic Medicine 90, 11 (2015): 14711486.

64

. Andrew J.Vickers, Fernando J.Bianco, Angel M.Serio, James A.Eastham, Deborah Schrag, Eric A.Klein, Alwyn M.Reuther, Michael W.Kattan, J.Edson Pontes, and Peter T.Scardi The surgical learning curve for prostate cancer control after radical prostatectomy, Journal of the National CancerInstitute 99, 15 (2007): 11711177.

65

. Curtis Craig, Martina I.Klein, John Griswold, Krishnanath Gaitonde, Thomas McGill, and Ari Halldorsson. Using cognitive task analysis to identify critical decisions in thelaparoscopic environment, Human Factors 54, 3 (2012): 125.

66

. Geoff Colvin. TalentIs Overrated: What Really Separates World-Class Performers from Everybody Else (New York: Portfolio, 2008); Malcolm Gladwell, Outliers: The Story of Success (New York: Little, Brown, 2008).

67

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68

. Cole G.Armstrong. The influence of sport specific social organizations on the development of identity: A case study of professional golf management (Ph.D. diss., Florida State University, 2015), Electronic Theses, Treatises and Dissertations, DigiNole Commons, paper 9540.

69

. Gina Kolata. Training insights from star athletes, New York Times, January 14, 2013.

70

. Daniel F.Chambliss. Champions: The Making of Olympic Swimmers (New York: Morrow, 1988); Daniel F.Chambliss. The mundanity of excellence: An ethnographic report on stratification and Olympic swimmers, Sociological Theory 7 (1989): 7086.

71

.Benjamin Franklin. The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin (New York: Henry Holt, 1916), original publication in French in 1791; first English printing, 1793. , , : K.Anders Ericsson, ed. Roads to Excellence: The Acquisition of Expert Performance in the Arts and Sciences, Sports, and Games (Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, 1996), 150.

72

. Lecoq de Boisbaudran. The Training of the Memory in Art and the Education of the Artist, trans. L.D.Luard (London: MacMillan, 1911).

73

. Rena R.Wing and Suzanne Phelan. Long-term weight-loss maintenance, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 82 (supplement, 2005): 222S-225S; K.Ball and D.Crawford, An investigation of psychological, social, and environmental correlates of obesity and weight gain in young women, International Journal of Obesity 30 (2006): 12401249.

74

. Gunder H"agg. Mitt Livs Lopp [The competition of my life] (Stockholm: Norstedts, 1987).

75

. Linnet Myers. Trained to be a genius, girl, 16, wallops chess champ Spassky for $ 110,000, Chicago Tribune, February 18, 1993; Austin Allen, Chess grandmastery: Nature, gender, and the genius of Judit Polg'ar, JSTOR Daily, October 22, 2014.

76

.Benjamin S.Bloom, ed. Developing Talent in Young People (New York: Ballantine Books,1985), 318.

77

. Kara Brandeisky, What it costs to raise a Wimble don champion, Money, July 4, 2014, http://time.com/money/2951543/cost-to-raise-tennis-championwimbledon/

78

.K.Anders Ericsson. How experts attain and maintain superior performance: Implications for the enhancement of skilled performance in older individuals, Journal of Aging and Physical Activity 8 (2000): 366372.

79

. Stefan Elmer, J"urgen H"anggi, and Lutz J"ancke. Processing demands upon cognitive, linguistic, and articulatory functions promote grey matter plasticity in the adult multilingual brain: Insights from simultaneous interpreters, Cortex 54 (2014): 179189.

80

. Paul T.Brady. Fixed-scale mechanism of perfect pitch, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 48, 4, pt. 2 (1970): 883887.

81

. Mark Alan Rush. An experimental investigation of the effectiveness of training on absolute pitch in adult musicians (Ph.D. diss., Ohio State University, 1989).

82

. The details on Nigel Richards come from several places. One good source is Stefan Fatsis, Word Freak: Heartbreak, Triumph, Genius, on Obsession in the World of Competitive Scrabble (New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2001). . Stefan Fatsis, An outtake from Word Freak: The enigmatic Nigel Richards, The Last Word 21 (September 2011): 3537.

83

. Harriett Zuckerman. Scientific Elite: Nobel Laureates in the United States (New York: Free Press, 1977).

84

. Edgar Istel and Theodore Baker. The secret of Paganinis technique, Musical Quarterly 16, 1 (1930): 101116.

85

. David Epstein. The Sports Gene: Inside the Science of Extraordinary Athletic Performance (New York: Current, 2013).

86

. Francesca Happ'e and PedroVital. What aspects of autism predispose to talent? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 364, 1522 (2009): 13691375.

87

. Barnett Addis. Resistance to parsimony: The evolution of a system for explaining the calendarcalculating abilities for idiot savant twins; O.A.Parsons, July 19, 132,470 is a Saturday: Idiot savant calendar-calculating twins, New Orleans, April 1968).

88

.K.Anders Ericsson and Irene Faivre. Whats exceptional about exceptional abilities? In The Exceptional Brain: Neuropsychology of Talent and Special Abilities, ed. Loraine K.Obler and Deborah Fein (New York: Guilford, 1988), 436473.

89

. David Bornstein. A better way to teach math, New York Times, April 11, 2011.

90

. Alfred Binet. Psychologie des grands calculateurs et joueurs dechecs [The psychology of great calculators and chess players] (Paris: Libraire Hachette, 1894).

91

.Merim Bilali'c, Peter McLeod, and Fernand Gobet. Does chess need intelligence? A study with young chess players, Intelligence 35 (2007): 457470.

92

.K.Anders Ericsson. Why expert performance is special and cannot be extrapolated from studies of performance in the general population: A response to criticisms, Intelligence 45 (2014): 81103.

93

. Melanie Noel, Carole Peterson, and Beulah Jesso, The relationship of parenting stress and child temperament to language development among economically disadvantages preschoolers, Journal of Child Language 35, 4 (2008): 823843.

94

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95

.Louis Deslauriers, Ellen Schelew, and Carl Wieman. Improved learning in a largeenrollment physics class, Science 332 (2011): 862864.

96

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97

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98

.Jeffrey Mervis. Transformation is possible if a university really cares, Science 340, 6130 (2013): 292296.

99

.Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi. Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience (New York: Harper & Row, 1990).


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